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English grammar(conjunction)

Conjunctions - Definitions and Types


Conjunctions - 
A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence. Different kinds of conjunctions join different kinds of grammatical structures.
  1. Coordinating Conjunctions
  2. Subordinating Conjunctions
  3. Correlative Conjunctions
  4. Conjunctive Adverbs

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions - The simple, little conjunctions are called coordinating conjunctions. 
For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So 
  • I like tea and coffee.
  • She is kind so she helps people.
The 7 coordinating conjunctions are short, simple words. They have only two or three letters. There's an easy way to remember them - their initials spell: FANBOYS. 
Coordinating conjunctions join words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses to clauses. They are used in between the words only, not at the beginning or end. 
  • I like ice cream, but I don't like chocolate. (Correct)
  • But I don't like chocolate, I like ice cream. (Incorrect)
When a coordinating conjunction joins two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses, no comma should be placed before the conjunction. 
  • I like tea and coffee.
A coordinating conjunction joining three or more words, phrases, or subordinate clauses creates a series and requires commas between the elements.
  • I like tea, coffee, and milk.
A coordinating conjunction joining two independent clauses creates a compound sentence and requires a comma before the coordinating conjunction.
  • Charley ate all the oranges, so Jim ate the grapes.

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunctions - It comes at the beginning of a Subordinate 
(or Dependent) Clause and establishes the relationship between the 
dependent clause and the rest of the sentence. It also turns the clause into something that depends on the rest of the sentence for its meaning.
  • He took to the stage as though he had been preparing for this moment all his life.
  • Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies.
  • Unless we act now, all is lost.

Common Subordinating Conjunctions: 

afterin order (that)unless
althoughinsofar asuntil
asin thatwhen
as far aslestwhenever
as soon asno matter howwhere
as ifnow thatwherever
as thoughoncewhether
becauseprovided (that)while
even ifso that
even thoughsupposing (that)
inasmuch as

Correlative Conjunctions

Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.
These are the common pairs:
  • both . . . and
  • not only . . . but also
  • not . . . but
  • either . . . or
  • neither . . . nor
  • whether . . . or
  • as . . . as
  • It was neither clever nor funny.
  • She is taking not only a holiday but also a pay rise. 
  • I could use neither the lorry nor the van.
These pairs of conjunctions require equal (parallel) structures after each one.

Conjunctive Adverbs

Conjunctive Adverbs - These conjunctions join independent clauses together. It is used to create complex relationships between ideas. 
The following are frequently used conjunctive adverbs:
after allin additionnext
as a resultindeedon the contrary
besidesin facton the other hand
consequentlyin other wordsotherwise
for examplelikewisethen
  • The company president will be in the building today so please act accordingly.
  • I’ve finished my work. Finally, I can go home.
  • Alice is a clever girl indeed.


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